World Migration Report 2018

The International Organisation for Migration (IOM), the UN Migration Agency, launched its flagship publication, the World Migration Report 2018, during the 108th IOM Council, in Geneva in November 2017.The report is the ninth in IOM’s World Migration Report (WMR) series and the first since IOM became the UN Migration Agency. Since 2000, IOM has been producing world migration reports to contribute to increased understanding of migration throughout the world.

The World Migration Report 2018project commenced in September 2016 and the report refers to data or events before June 2017.

The 2018 report

*presents current migration issues in a two-part structure, combining an overarching presentation of current migration dynamics with in-depth analyses of complex and emerging issues that have been shaping human mobility;

*includes chapters that delve into themes such as transnational connectivity, media reporting on migrants and migration, extremism and social exclusion;

*has the largest chapter delves into regional dimensions and developments and explores key features, such as intra-regional migration, internal and international displacement, labour migration and remittances, migrant smuggling and human trafficking, integration and irregular migration; and

*calls for greater recognition of the many interconnections in the analysis and policymaking on migration.

Importance of the report

The report is seen as significant because

*it shows how population grows in many parts of the world and it also contributes to reversing the population decline in some countries;

*international migration is a critical concern for the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development; and

*it uses the migration term in a broader sense and takes into account anyone living in a country other their own (includes refugees and economic migrants, those who immigrate officially and who do so irregularly).


Highlights of the 2018 report

The highlights of the report are as follows:

*globally, 3.4 percent of the population are international migrants i.e., those who live in a country other than the country where they were born

*total percentage of male immigrants in 2015, 52 percent andfemales, 48 percent

*globally, an estimated 258 million people live in a country other than their country of birth (increase of 49 per cent since 2000); some 64 per cent of them in high-income countries

*Indian diaspora–largest in the world (17 million); followed by Mexico (13 million), Russia (11 million), China (10 million), Bangladesh (7 million), Pakistan and Ukraine (6 million), Plippinnes and Syria and UK in that order

*Asia and Europe :biggest sources of migrants (31 percent each)

*one in every 30 people: an international migrant

*migration contributed 42 percent of population growth in North America;  31 percent in Oceania (between 2000 and 2015)

* USA: the top destination for migrants in the world; followed by Germany, Russia, Saudi Arabia, UK, UAE, Canada, France, Australia and Spain in that order

*those under 18 years of age made up 51 percent of refugees in 2016.

*in 2016, the top five remittance recipient countries (remittances being financial or in-kind transfers made by migrants directly to families or communities in their countries of origin):

India and China(total inward remittances exceeding USD 60 billion for each country) followed by Philippines, Mexico and Pakistan (in descending order)

*by the end of 2016, a total of 22.5 million refugees, with 17.2 million under UNHCR’s mandate and 5.3 million refugees registered by the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East

*some 2.8 million people seeking international protection and awaiting determination of their refugee status (asylum seekers); of the roughly 2 million first-instance applications for asylum lodged in 2016, Germany remained top recipient (over 720,000 applications) followed by USA (262,000) and Italy (123,000)


On India

The report noted the following details vis-à-vis India.

*As of 2017, 17 million Indians live outside the country (at least 5 million in the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia and 2 million in USA).

*The largest migration corridor is from India to UAE, where 3.5 million Indians were residing in 2015.

*The Indian diaspora constitutes 6 per cent of the total number of international migrants (people living outside the country of their birth)—estimated at 243 million.

*The number of the migrants from other countries living in India is 5.2 million, a fall of 1.22 million from 2000.

About IOM

TheInternational Organisation for Migration

*was established in 1951 as Intergovernmental Committee for European Migration (ICEM) to help resettle people;

*works in four broad areas of migration management: migration and development, facilitating migration, regulating migration and forced migration; and

* has 166 member states, a further eight states holding observer status and offices in over 100 countries.

Global Manufacturing Index report

In January 2018, the World Economic Forum (WEF) released its Global Manufacturing Index.

Japan topped the rankings on the back of developing the best structure of production in the Geneva-based WEF’s first ‘Readiness for the future of production report’. It is followed by South Korea, Germany, Switzerland, China, Czech Republic, the US, Sweden, Austria and Ireland in the top 10.

The WEF has ranked India at the 30th position below China (fifth place) but above other BRICS countries, Brazil, Russia and South Africa.Among BRICS nations, Russia is ranked 35th, Brazil, 41st and South Africa, 45th.

The countries ranked higher than India include Singapore, Thailand, the UK, Italy, France, Malaysia, Mexico, Romania, the Netherlands, Denmark, the Philippines and Spain.


The report, which analyses development of modern industrial strategies and urges collaborative action, has categorised 100 countries in four major groups for its ranking which include, Leading (strong
current base, high level of readiness for future); High Potential (limited current base, high potential for future);
Legacy (strong current base, at risk for future); and ascent (limited current base, low level of readiness for future).

China is on the list of ‘Leading’ countries while Brazil and South Africa are in ‘Nascent’ ones.

The report pointed out that the 25 countries placed in the ‘Leading’ category were in the best position to gain as production systems stand on the brink of exponential change.

India has been placed in the ‘Legacy’ group alongside Hungary, Mexico, Philippines, Russia, Thailand and Turkey, among others.

Capitalising on Fourth Industrial Revolution

The report stated that no country has reached the frontier of readiness, let alone harnessed the full potential of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in production.In a separate list of the countries best positioned to capitalise on the Fourth Industrial Revolution to transform production systems, the US has been ranked on the top, followed by Singapore, Switzerland, the UK and the Netherlands in the top five. India has been ranked 44th on this list, while China is 25th and Russia in 43rd place.


Referring to India, which had a total manufacturing value of over $420 billion in 2016, the report said that the country’s manufacturing sector has grown by over 7 percent per year on average in the past three decades and accounts for 16-20 percent of India’s GDP.

Home to the second-largest population in the world and one of the fastest growing economies, India is seeing a rising demand for its manufactured products. India has room for improvement across the drivers of production, except for demand environment where is ranks in the top 5.

In terms of the scale of production, India has been ranked ninth, while for complexity it is in the 48th place. For market size, India is on the third spot, while areas where the country is ranked poorly (90th or even lower) include female participation in labour force, trade tariffs, regulatory efficiency and sustainable resources.

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018

Climate Change Performance Index

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) 2018 was released on November 15, 2017, on the sidelines of the UN Climate Change negotiations (COP23) in Bonn, Germany. It is issued by German watch, the New Climate Institute and the Climate Action Network.


Recognizing the need to take instant action in protecting the global climate, the 21st Conference of the Parties, held in December 2015 in Paris, made a pioneering achievement in adopting the goal to limit global warming to well below 2°C and pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5°C. With its new methodology, the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) is now suited to measure the progress of countries towards contributing to the climate goals decided in Paris. It is applied for the first time for the G20 countries in July 2017 and was now adopted for all 56 countries evaluated in the Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) and the EU for the CCPI 2018 edition.
The Climate Change Performance Index is an instrument intended to improve transparency in international climate politics. Its aim is to put political and social pressure on those countries which have, up until now, failed to take determined action on climate protection. It furthermore aims to highlight those countries with best practice climate policies.

About Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI)

Climate Change Performance Index (CCPI) keeps track of countries’ efforts in fighting climate change. On the basis of uniform criteria, the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of 56 countries and the European Union that collectively are responsible for about 90% of global energy-related CO2 emissions. On the basis of consistent criteria, the index evaluates and compares the climate protection performance of countries. 80% of the evaluation is based on objective indicators of emissions tendency and emissions level. 20% of the index outcome is built upon national and international climate policy assessments by more than 200 experts from the respective countries.

Performance of various countries

The ranking results of this category are defined by a country’s aggregated performance concerning 14 indicators inside the four categories GHG Emissions, Renewable Energy, Energy Use and Climate Policy. The CCPI 2018 results show the main regional differences in climate protection and performance within the 56 evaluated countries and the EU. Despite falling growth rates in CO2 emissions, still, no country performed well enough to attain the rating “very high” in this year’s index. China, which is one of the main GHG emitting countries, ranks 41st.
like last year’s rankings, top three rankings are still unoccupied as no country has adhered to commitments made in 2015 Paris Climate Accord that aims to maintain the average global temperature rise below two degrees Celsius and as close as possible to 1.5 degrees Celsius. The report has taken into consideration commitments by nations to lessen greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent and increase energy efficiency and renewable by at least 27 percent by the year 2030. The report remarks that global energy transition is taking up the pace but no country is doing sufficient. For this, the countries have to strengthen targets and execution.
In this year’s index, Sweden is leading the list, followed by Lithuania and Morocco. The group of medium-performing countries consists of countries like Brazil, Germany, Mexico, and Ukraine whereas New Zealand, the Netherlands and Austria are classified as low performers in the overall rating. Saudi Arabia, Islamic Republic of Iran, Republic of Korea, Australia and the United States figure the bottom five of this categorization, scoring low or very low across almost all categories. These countries have not made any steps forward in this direction of dropping emission levels, nor have shown any desire to do so.
The data show hopeful growth in renewable energy, ever cheaper prices for solar and wind energy and successes in saving energy in several countries. This was responsible for stabilizing global energy CO2 emissions in the last 3 years. But progress is achieved much too sluggish for a fully renewable energy based world economy in a few decades because growing oil and gas consumption is higher than the decline in coal use. India is ranked 14th, an improvement from its 20th position last year. Improvement in India’s rank in CCPI 2018 indicates that Indian Government is putting efforts for dipping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by opting to convert its electricity sector towards green technology.

Pradeep Gautam


Spectrum’s Geography

Spectrum’s Geography of India


India Youth Development Index and Report 2017

India Youth Development Index


On November  13, 2017, Government released the ‘India Youth Development Index and Report 2017’.

  • India Youth Development Index 2017 and the related report have been prepared by Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of Youth Development (RGNIYD), Sriperumbudur, Tamil Nadu. 
  • The index has been constructed with an objective to track the trends in Youth Development across the States.
  • The Index enables recognizing the high and low performing states, identifies the weak domains and informs the policymakers the main concern areas of intervention for youth development in the states.
  • The index also measures the achievements made besides serving as an advocacy tool for youth development. The index will also provide reference points to enable judicious allocation of resources
  • Youth are defined as those aged 15 to 29 in the national youth policy (2014). This age-group constitutes 27.5% of India’s population.
  • This report is of enormous value to enable comparisons across geographical areas and categories, as human development index has done in comparing the development situation across regions, nations, and localities.
  • Global Youth Development Index is different from India Youth Development Index on one unique parameter as YDI for India has a new realm i.e. social inclusion. This parameter has been added to appraise the inclusiveness of social progress towards removing inequalities in Indian society.
  • Global Youth Development Index is a composite index of 18 indicators that collectively measure multi-dimensional progress on youth development in 183 countries.India has been ranked 133rd out of 183 countries in the 2016 Global Youth Development Index.
  • In the India Youth Development Index 2017, the first 5 dimensions are retained same as that of Global YDI These five dimensions are education, health and well-being, employment and opportunity, political participation and civic participation for young people. 
  • The indicators and weightage have been tailored in accordance with the importance of the indicators in explaining Youth Development in Indian conditions on national and state level.


♦ Pradeep Gautam


Indian Polity