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The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is hosting the 23rd annual conference of the parties COP23 at Bonn, Germany from 6-17 November, and is presided over by the Government of Fiji.The conference aims to prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system”, ie halt global warming.

The UNFCCC was adopted in 1992 at the Rio Earth Summit, which denoted the start of the worldwide group’s initially deliberate push to confront the issue of Climate change. Referred to as the Rio Convention, the UNFCCC set up a structure for activity to balance out concentrations of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere. The UNFCCC went into force in 1994, and nearly all of the world’s nations —an aggregate of 195—have now signed on.

For what reason does it make a difference?

Climate change is as of now altogether increasing the probability of extreme weather, from heatwaves to floods. However, without sharp cuts to global carbon emissions, we can expect “serious, broad, and irreversible effects” for billions of individuals and the world. The landmark Paris agreement at COP 21 in 2015 conveyed the main really worldwide arrangement to handle climate change, however, national action should be essentially toughened to meet to an objective of keeping worldwide temperature rise to well underneath 2C, and 1.5C, if possible.

Paris Agreement

The Paris Agreement is intended to ensure that the normal surface temperature everywhere throughout the world does not rise above two degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial. To realize this objective, nations have promised under the Paris Agreement to take a variety of self-determined actions to restrain the present rate of global warming.

The Paris agreement set out standards, yet not the subtle elements, with one diplomat comparing it to having a splendid new smartphone but no operating system. The Bonn meeting will be fundamental in building the standards that will empower the Paris arrangement to work.

The Paris accord was viewed as a landmark agreement since it was negotiated by representatives of 196 parties at COP 21. As of October 2017, 195, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) members have consented to and signed the arrangement. COP 23 at Bonn is the second one after Donald Trump’s withdrawal of the US (which will become effective in 2020 )

What’s in the COP23?

The UNCCC in Bonn is the subsequent stage for governments to actualize the Paris climate change agreement and quicken the change to sustainable, resilient and climate-safe development. The Paris Agreement entered into force last November and the period of implementation has started. This conference will additionally elucidate the empowering structures that will make the agreement completely operational and the help required for all countries to accomplish their climate change goals.

COPs are always run by a designated nation, for the first time, this is being one of the small island nations that are most at risk from the sea-level rise and extreme storms that climate change is bringing. Fiji’s PM, Frank Bainimarama, is the COP23 president, however, the summit is being held in Germany for practical reasons. Fiji suffered damages of over $1bn after Cyclone Winston struck in 2016, which is probably going to concentrate on the contentious issue of compensation for climate damage and adjusting to future dangers, as much as cutting emissions.

While the aim of the event is considerably bigger, nations attending the COP23 are scheduled to finalize the rulebook of the Paris Agreement. This process was begun in Marrakesh 2016 meet. These rules will direct how the Agreement would be monitored and executed. It will change the Kyoto Protocol by 2020.

There are profound and longstanding tensions over the issue of “loss and damage”, the possibility that developing nations should be compensated for destruction resulting from climate change which they did close to nothing or nothing to cause. The principle is one of compensation in light of the fact that the western nations built up their economies to the detriment of the planet and of poor people. The stakes are elevated further as some developing countries understand they lost in the Paris agreement which, unlike previous deals, does not impose legally restricting commitments on rich nations

India also has a large coastline, and anthropogenic climate change and the resultant rise in ocean levels will straightforwardly influence its nationals. In this manner, another vital point to remember at Bonn is an adaptation. While most targets and negotiations focus on mitigation of climate change, nations likely to face the brunt of climate change must be worried about the essential issue of long-term finance to reinforce adaptation strategies keeping in mind the end goal to adapt to the effect of climate change.

Developing countries like India will experience the ill effects of climate change. In any case, the prime concern for India is that constraining greenhouse gas emissions will meddle with its development. India still depends on sources heavily polluting sources like coal to produce 59% of its energy. In India, more than 300 million people are still without electricity.

♦ Pradeep Gautam

International Organisations,Conferences and Treaties